Essential-oil composition, antileishmanial, and toxicity study of Artemisia abyssinica and Satureja punctata ssp. punctata from Ethiopia.


Essential oils of Artemisia abyssinica and Satureja punctata ssp. punctata from Ethiopia were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and screened for leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and L. aethiopica, including toxicity studies on human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) and erythrocytes in vitro. GC/MS of A. abyssinica oil revealed 67 compounds (99.94%) with the major constituents yomogi alcohol (38.47%), artemisyl acetate (24.88%), and artemisia alcohol (6.70%), and oxygenated monoterpenes (84.00%) as the dominant group. The oil of S. punctata contained 67 compounds (99.49%) with the main constituents geranial (27.62%), neral (21.72%), alpha-bisabolol (13.62%), and (E)-nerolidol (4.82%), of which oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes (58.39 and 26.91%, resp.) showed highest abundance. Both oils showed effect on promastigotes (MIC 76.5 to 312.5 nl/ml) and amastigotes (EC(50) 4.06 to 131.00 nl/ml) of L. donovani and L. aethiopica, and varying toxicities on THP-1 cells (CC(50) 0.013 to 350 nl/ml with selectivity index between 0.001 and 28) and erythrocytes (with LC(50) 0.35 to 1.52 microl/ml). S. punctata oil exerted highest activity against both Leishmania sp. and toxicity. The revealed antileishmanial activities support further isolation and investigation of oil constituents for in vitro/in vivo evaluation.


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